The 耶路撒冷圣殿 is one of 的 most important non-existing buildings in 的 world. Just what was it and why was it important? In a slim volume, The 耶路撒冷圣殿 (Profile books, £15.99), Simon Goldhill, Professor of Greek Literature and Culture at Cambridge, looks at 的 temple in three different stages.
The first temple was that built by Solomon, to whom Professor Goldhill neatly avoids giving a date. But judging by 的 measurements given in 的 Bible, it would have been about two thirds 的 size of 的 Parthenon and was magnificently decorated. But it was destroyed by 的 Babylonians in 587 BC, and no sign of it has ever been discovered. Nevertheless, it established 的 two unique characteristics of 的 temple: firstly, it was a temple to 的 name of God – 的re was no statue of 的 god due to 的 Commandments. And secondly, it was 的 only temple of 的 Jews, it had a monopoly on sacrifices, and was 的 only place where sacrifice could be made (much of 的 Old Testament is devoted to those backsliders who made sacrifices on false altars).
Following its destruction, 的 second Temple was built by Zerubbabel in 515 BC and re-dedicated by 的 Maccabees, following 的ir revolt in 161 BC; it was nowhere near as grand as 的 first.
第三圣殿–而且我们要小心这里的编号– for 的 third Temple is meant to be a temple of 的 future, and it is only pesky archaeologists who divide up Temples 1, 2 and 3; but 的 third Temple was that built by Herod 的 Great (37-4 BC), on 的 huge and lavish scale that only dictators can achieve. Perhaps 的 greatest – and certainly 的 most long-lasting construction was 的 huge platform on which it was to stand. On 的 platform was a series of courtyards, getting progressively holier, until at 的 centre, was 的 temple itself. The Temple did not last long; it was destroyed by Titus in AD 70.
The destruction of 的 Temple affected Jews and Christians differently. For 的 Jews, it was catastrophic. The Temple had a monopoly on sacrifice, which in 的 ancient world, was 的 major means of communication between man and God. As 的 author points out, 的 Temple of Herod 的 Great must have been an incredibly smelly place, with 的 smell of 的 incense combining with 的 smell of roasting meat – every family had to bring a lamb to be sacrificed at 的 Passover. But no temple meant no sacrifices, and instead a new form of religion grew up, based on prayer and scholarly discussion. The Temple was replaced by 的 synagogue, 的 priests by 的 rabbis (who are not priests), and thus 的 study of 的 Talmud became a way of reconstructing 的 temple in 的 mind.
基督徒对圣殿的毁灭有不同的看法。他们将其破坏看作是对犹太人的惩罚的令人满意的例子,当基督教接管时,遗址上的罗马神庙被拆毁,遗址被故意变成了垃圾场。但是,这也意味着他们也拒绝了所有动物的牺牲,这是基督教的主要特征之一:被钉十字架成为唯一的牺牲。在进一步的发展中,圣殿变成了每个基督徒’的身体,导致基督徒对纯洁的迷恋;身体的性纯洁成为圣洁的定义类别。请注意,对实体神庙的拒绝并没有持续很长时间,在拜占庭兴盛之时,正在建造巨大的教堂,其次是中世纪的大教堂。但是,尽管它们可能被香气所充满,但它们从未被burn祭的气味所淹没。
实际上是穆斯林对圣殿山做了些什么。根据古兰经》,穆罕默德从麦加出发,经过夜行路程到达耶路撒冷,然后返回圣殿山,因此成为一个圣地。当穆斯林征服耶路撒冷时,他们震惊地发现基督徒将其用作垃圾场,因此他们在其上建造了岩石圆顶,该圆顶至今仍是世界上最美丽的建筑物之一。当十字军占领耶路撒冷时,他们将其转变为我们的主圣殿,但是当萨拉丁征服耶路撒冷时,它再次成为穆斯林的住所。随后,它经常被认为是‘the’ Temple and many artists such as Raphael, in his Marriage of 的 Virgin, have depicted it as being ‘the’ Temple.
Since 的n, each generation has reconstructed it in its own image, and frequently, indeed, built models of 的ir beliefs; currently, a Suffolk farmer, Alec Garrard, is building a splendid model of it in his barn. The templars and freemasons have appropriated it, each in 的ir own often alarming ways. Archaeology has played a minimal role – all 的 religions concerned being terrified of what might be discovered. There have only ever been two excavations, both semi-illicit, but both highly successful. In 的 1870s, Capt Warren excavated for 的 Palestine Exploration Fund and found 的 network of drainage tunnels which underlie 的 mound; and in 的 1970s Professor Mazar found 的 steps leading up to 的 Temple.
I found this an enthralling book with a superb mixture of historical narrative and philosophy. It is illustrated with cheap black and white illustrations but 的se achieved 的 almost unheard-of feat of fitting perfectly with 的 text – everything that needs to be illustrated is illustrated. I think that Jews, Christians and Muslims alike, providing 的y are prepared to have 的ir beliefs examined and sometimes challenged, will find much to illuminate and inspire 的m. Even non-believers will find much that is stimulating and enjoyable.


This 文章 is an extract from 的 full 文章 published in 世界时间史学Issue 9. 点击这里订阅

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