The enigmatic Cycladic figurines, the abstract figures found in the Cyclades islands, have had enormous influence on modern art. They 第一 came to notice at the same time as modern art was beginning to go abstract, and their stark abbreviated geometric forms persuaded modern artists to do likewise. But when exactly did they flourish and what were the settlements that produced the figurines? When Colin Renfrew, back in the 1960s, was looking for a subject for his doctoral thesis, he chose to study the Cycladic figurines and the Cycladic early bronze age.

科林·伦弗鲁(Colin Renfrew)是格雷厄姆·克拉克(Grahame Clark)和格林·丹尼尔(Glyn Daniel)在50年代末至60年代初在剑桥养育的杰出考古学家之一。确实,科林不仅成为联盟主席,而且还获得了‘first’ – a rather unusual distinction. In order to study the figurines and the cultures which produced them, he had to spend six months in the Cyclades, going round and visiting at 第一 hand the sites from which figurines had been recovered. In fact almost all had been looted: they came from cemetery sites where the figurines were recovered and most of the accompanying objects thrown away. One site in particular stood out, the one he discovered on the island of Keros on the 24th July 1963; he remembers the date in particular, as it was the day before his birthday. This was a large area of extensive looting at Dhaskalio Kavos; lying around on the surface there were fragments of figurines and the characteristic marble bowls, all broken. He felt that it was so important that in his thesis he named the Early Bronze Age 2 culture of the Cyclades, the Keros-Syros culture, after this site and the biggest known cemetery of Chalandriani on the island of Syros. And it is to this site on Keros, 43 years later, that he has returned.

凯罗斯(Keros)是基克拉迪东部无人居住的大岛,是纳克索斯岛(Naxos)后面隐藏的一群岛屿。除阿莫尔戈斯岛外,克罗斯(Keros)是最大的,但现在却无人居住:它非常多山,没有肥沃的耕地(可以说没有游客的好沙滩)。因此,尽管30年前仍然有一些牧羊人住在那儿,但如今它像许多偏远的岛屿一样,完全人口稀少。

1963年,工作开始了,当时有时被称为爱琴海考古学的Mortimer Wheeler的克里斯托斯·杜马斯(Christos Doumas)来了,当时的Epimelete是群岛上负责考古的人之一。他还决定调查一个名为Dhaskalio的小而陡峭的岛屿,该岛屿位于离海岸仅80米的地方,那里有中世纪教堂的报道。他游过去,花了一天的时间清理教堂。他几乎没有发现中世纪时期的材料,但确实找到了Keros-Syros类型的早期青铜时代陶器。这是一个相关网站吗?后来,岛屿的隐士Zapheiropoulou夫人对卡沃斯的遗址进行了广泛的探索。

然后在1987年,有机会在科沃斯(Colin)和克里斯托斯·杜马斯(Christos Doumas)以及莱拉·马兰古(Lila Marangou)教授的陪同下,在卡沃斯(Kavos)进行了一项调查项目。很快就知道这是一个非常不寻常的站点:尽管有大量的资料,但都被破坏了。看起来,尽管其中一些物品可能是在那儿制造的,但其他物品却是在其他地方制造的,并被故意破坏了。主要浓度被命名为‘Special Deposit’。这是一些精心制作的仪式的场所吗?‘sacrificed’?还是仅仅是一个非常有钱的早期基克拉迪公墓的遗骸被系统地抢劫了?健行专家Todd Whitelaw和他的团队对该项目进行了深入调查,并预测‘special deposit’可能位于原始发现以南400码处。事情直到2006年才解决。

挖掘开始

科林很想返回并发掘两个地点。使之可行的原因是他赢得了巴尔赞奖(与诺贝尔奖相当),但是为了人文科学。它价值100万瑞士法郎(约合40万英镑),并花了很多钱在剑桥建立新的奖学金,他觉得应该放任自己一点点放纵,对于考古学家来说,自我放纵意味着发掘:他决心花费10万英镑重返Keros。到那时,他已经从迪斯尼考古学教授和剑桥麦当劳学院院长的职务中退休,并完成了剑桥大学耶稣学院的硕士学位。当然,是时候回到克罗斯了。他从其他渠道筹集资金,得到了希腊当局的挖掘许可,现在已经完成了三个季节中的两个。

主要结果是进一步‘special deposit’确实在南面400码处被发现‘special deposit’ that he had discovered 40 years ago and which had been dug out by the looters. Due to the looting many questions remained. The findings were all fragmentary, including pottery, marble vessels and figurines and they were all different. Had they been brought to the site and then broken and deposited? Even more important was the question: was the deposit essentially a cemetery that had been churned up? Most of the other finds of Cycladic figurines come from cemeteries where they are accompanied by other objects, pottery vases, obsidian flakes and various stone objects. Were these remains of burials which had been ignored by the looters? Fortunately all knowledge of the new site was kept concealed from the looters: here was an opportunity to dig a 特别存款 archaeologically and to see what it really consisted of.

The result so far had been pretty unequivocal: it appears indeed to be a ritual site, where the objects were deposited in pits in the ground. The contents of the pits were all carefully sieved with wet sieving to check for traces of human bones and none were found. Quite clearly this was not a cemetery. Equally the objects had not been broken on the spot, since the pieces did not fit together. They had been broken elsewhere, brought to Keros as fragments and then buried. Analysis of the pottery fragments showed that they came from different islands. More than a hundred fragments of figurines were discovered, many of the famous Cycladic folded arm form. A large but fragmentary sculpture of the pelvic area of a folded arm figurine was 17cm in width, suggesting that the original figure before breakage would have stood more than 1 metre high. This is the 第一 time that so large a figure has been documented from a secure archaeological context. But they found not just figurines. There were also hundreds of fragments of marble bowls and other marble vessels and pot sherds from a range of fine wares, including painted vessels and fragments of ‘sauceboats’(可能是水杯),这是Keros-Syros文化的特征形式。

开挖时发现了一系列的跨坑。他们中的一些人跌落到一米多深的下面不规则的基岩上,但是不可能一次说出其中有多少个是敞开的。每年是否有人挖了一个坑?’s offerings? Or did each grouping, each island perhaps, have their own 特别 pit into which offerings were made year by year? Were offerings made more or less continuously, or was there a grand annual ceremony, at mid summer perhaps, or perhaps even every four years as at the later Olympics?

达斯卡里奥发掘

同时,还在西面80m的Dhaskalio小岛上进行挖掘。的确,为了使探险队的两半能够相互交流,购买了橡皮艇在两个岛屿之间渡轮。前往Dhaskalio并不容易。那里没有海滩,所以必须建造一个临时的着陆平台,或者说是两个着陆平台,第二个要用的平台是可怕的北风Boreas像希腊夏季那样经常刮起大风,使主要降落地点无法使用。 (有人问过,在青铜时代这两个岛屿是否有联系,但尚无直接证据表明这一点。)

在岛上荒凉的山顶上是一个定居点,那里保留着大量的Keros Syros文化遗迹(2800年–已经出土了。这似乎是国内的–陶器以及各种石材工具和磨床。在著名的发现中,有一个圆柱形的铅制砝码支持了这样一种观点,即在公元前2300年之前,爱琴海已经建立了一种确定制度。克里斯托斯·杜马斯(Christos Doumas)在1970年代手持铲土机游过时,在岛的顶部是中世纪教堂的基础。但是,尽管两栖动物的东端足够清晰,但这一时期没有发现。确实,教堂的日期仍然不确定。可能是13世纪,或者可能一直使用到18世纪:公元前3世纪的青铜时代遗留下了很多文物:中世纪的教堂没有遗留下来。

从顶部向下还有一些痕迹。尤其是,有许多干石墙,其前面是用更大的未加工岩石建造的其他墙,并将在下个季节保留’这些工作是否代表两阶段的结构。科林·伦弗鲁(Colin Renfrew)希望将较低的隔离墙视为防御性的,尽管在这样一个荒凉的岛上着陆,攀登陡峭的岩石,然后冲向顶部的定居点本来就是坚强的敌人。但是,副主任奥尔加·菲拉尼奥图(Olga Philaniotou)和这些岛屿的前Epimelete认为它们是国内的。但是最后一个赛季的问题仍然存在’的工作。这是对面的神父的永久定居点吗?还是从本质上讲,这是一家朝圣者季节性入住的酒店? Colin Renfrew更加谨慎,尚未将其视为‘sanctuary’ with ‘priests’但这可能是最好的解释。

有趣的观察之一是建筑石材都是异物。它们可能是从Naxos进口的,Naxos在六英里外的地平线上可见。他们为什么要如此努力地进口建筑石材?主要原因可能是一个实际的原因,即岛上的石头是片岩状的。建筑石材的质量非常差,而纳克索斯(Naxos)上的大理石是世界上最好的大理石之一,很容易分裂形成优质的建筑材料。进口石材将是一项重大的物流业务–也许是克拉克拉迪时代各岛之间航海程度的证据。

这些发掘似乎表明,克罗斯人一定是基克拉迪文明的主要仪式中心,并为该文明提供了新的亮点。迄今为止,它有两个主要的声望。首先,它参加了‘international spirit’ of the Aegean Early Bronze Age, with the widespread use of copper and then of bronze. And, secondly, this was the time of the 第一 extensive cemeteries, in Crete and the Cyclades (beginning a little earlier in the Cycladic Late Neolithic). Settlements were known earlier, but now elaborate burials began to appear accompanied by rich objects –在基克拉泽斯群岛中,其中包括大理石雕像。凯罗斯(Keros)通过揭示朝圣循环或一种仪式来扩展我们对基克拉迪文明的知识,在朝圣仪式中,物体被正式分解,并且各个部分沉积在不同的地区甚至不同的岛屿中。

但是凯罗斯(Keros)是‘special’岛?在古典时期,‘special’爱琴海的岛屿–德洛斯。提洛岛(Delos)是一个小岛,距离米克诺斯岛(Mykonos)较大的岛海面十几英里。如今,除了考古学家外,这里都无人居住,但在古典时代,它被认为是阿波罗和阿耳emi弥斯的发源地,是与德尔斐和奥林匹亚一起的伟大的崇拜中心之一。是克罗斯(Keros)‘Delos’ of the Cycladic age? The shape of the island may be significant. It is a mountainous presence rising out of the sea, today uninhabited partly because it is barren but also because it is so spectacularly mountainous. Did it perhaps play a role similar to that of 德洛斯 in the classical period? Was Keros a somewhat forbidding and therefore mysterious island, the seat of the gods to whom tribute had to be paid? Colin Renfrew may have been wiser than he knew when he named the Cycladic phenomenon the Keros-Syros culture.


本文摘录于《世界时间史》第26期中的完整文章。 点击这里订阅

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