首先,由于人口增长和新建筑的充实,花园城市的房屋面积适中,但面积却不大。然后,随着庞贝古城最近200年的富裕起来,财产越大,消耗的财产就越小’s existence.
这些是布拉德福德大学的里克·琼斯(Rick Jones)发起的一项英美联合项​​目的结论,该项目旨在调查该城市西北角(第六区,第1岛)的整个建筑物。开挖八年后‘维斯塔斯之家’琼斯(Jones)及其同事重建了庞贝城(Pompeii)的故事’s grandest houses over a period of 400 years. It is a story of expansion, luxury and conspicuous consumption as the owners of the house engaged in the power games being played out at the top of Pompeian society. But inequality was rife. While 维斯塔斯之家 housed some of the richest people in town, in small bars, workshops and upstairs rental apartments in the same block lived some of the city’最贫穷的在大房子里,在狭窄而狭窄的服务区内,很大程度上与高雅的接待室和门廊隔离开来,那里居住着为房主服务的奴隶。在其存在的最后两个世纪中,庞贝城是一个极端的城市。
早期的房子
The House of the Vestals is close to the Herculaneum Gate, where the clearance of Pompeii began in the second half of the eighteenth century. Much of the decoration was systematically stripped (some can be seen in the National Archaeological 博物馆 in Naples), and what was left has degraded to almost nothing over the last two centuries. So 维斯塔斯之家, once among the city’目前,最富裕的30座住宅保存不善。大多数游客不会再看一眼。但是艺术史学家’失去的是考古学家’的收获。可以研究墙面抹灰瓦解后暴露出来的砖石,以确定一系列的建筑阶段。由于几乎没有马赛克的残存,因此可以挖掘地板来研究房屋的早期历史。
In the late third century BC, there were just two modest masonry houses in the block, the precursors of 维斯塔斯之家 and the neighbouring House of the Surgeon (so called for the collection of medical instruments found there in early excavations). Both properties fronted onto the Via Consolare, the main road leading from the Herculaneum Gate to the town centre, and the rest of the block appears to have been undeveloped at this time. There is evidence that farm animals were kept here and cereal crops processed; evidence, that is, that these were urban farms. During the second century, however, the block filled up with small courtyard houses and commercial properties, some now fronting onto the narrow alleyway (Vicolo di Narciso) which formed the other principal boundary of the triangular-shaped block.
The House of the Vestals more than doubled in size (from four or five rooms to nine rooms with an enclosed garden) and now extended the full width of the block. New features were introduced: an atrium (a square court inside the main entrance with a central opening in the roof and a basin in the floor to collect rainwater); and a separate service area, so that slaves, stores and domestic tasks could be kept out of sight. The House of the Vestals became the dominant residence in the block. The owners also controlled some of the other properties. A new courtyard house was built as part of the same construction as 维斯塔斯之家’后部延伸;大概是把它当作收入来源了。商业地产,在Consolare大街正面设有混凝土衬砌的水箱–也许是海鲜吧– was joined by a passageway to 维斯塔斯之家; the owners must have received a share in the profits.
‘在公元前二世纪,’里克·琼斯(Rick Jones)解释说,‘we’re seeing the first signs of social and economic inequality in our neighbourhood. Although the block became heavily built-up with small houses and workplaces, we can see this as part of the expansion of 维斯塔斯之家. It was unique among its neighbours in having status architecture in the form of an atrium. The service area suggests a larger household of slaves than elsewhere in the block. At the same time, the owners were investing heavily in the urban economy, building and staffing workshops on the busy Via Consolare, and renting out a separate house on the quiet Vicolo di Narciso. We’我们已经开始了庞贝古城后期复杂的城市生活形式’s history.’
炫耀性消费
为什么现在?那是罗马的时代’最大的征服。公元前三世纪末,罗马不得不与汉尼拔展开一场可怕的战争,以保持对意大利土地帝国的控制。直到那时,她才获得了无可争议的超级大国地位。在第二世纪,她的军队开始征服地中海东部,希腊和小亚细亚的财富开始流入意大利。在第一个世纪,叙利亚,黎凡特和埃及被占领后,她的成功持续不断。胜利,掠夺和致敬使意大利精英阶层富裕了一百倍。修建了伟大的纪念碑。大房子扩大了,并充满了大理石和马赛克。富人争夺财富,并在争夺民众青睐和选举职位的荣誉时,将财富分配给了极少数人。
财富没有任何尴尬。如果你看起来很富有,那说明你很有力量,这意味着你有赞助人的影响力。客户被财富所吸引。炫耀性消费是树立领导者风度的一种方式,为他们提供选民,布道者和大批示威者。但是随着新的财富涌入意大利,身份象征变得通货膨胀。为了跟上,主要家庭必须扩大和改善他们的主要住所。
在公元前一世纪初,意大利因内战而被抽搐,意大利城市要求罗马公民权(实际上是机会均等)。庞贝加入了起义,在公元前89年被罗马将军苏拉包围。主要攻击是在赫库兰尼姆门发起的。那里的墙壁上仍然留着苏拉扔石头打的伤痕’s artillery. Many buildings close to the wall were badly damaged. In the aftermath, the owners of 维斯塔斯之家 took the opportunity to absorb the two courtyard houses to the north into their own property and to carry out a wholesale remodelling of the entire complex.
The owners now had the space to create an elaborate series of reception rooms surrounding two peristyles (colonnaded courtyards), arranged axially, such that guests admitted to one part of the house might nonetheless be aware of its extent and grandeur. There was also a small private bath-house. The commercial properties fronting the Via Consolare were also rebuilt. As well as an entrance to the stable area of 维斯塔斯之家, there was a smithy and a food and drink shop, both still linked by passageways to the main house and therefore presumably linked to it economically.
迟来的房子
Less than a hundred years later, 维斯塔斯之家 was transformed again. While mosaic floors were laid throughout the house, and rooms redecorated in the fashionable Third Style of Pompeian wall-painting, fundamental to the new design was the provision of piped water and garden fountains, made possible by the recent construction of an imperial aqueduct to the city. ‘尽管保留了房屋的主要结构元素,’里克·琼斯(Rick Jones)解释说,‘整个建筑物在其地块的相同基本范围内被有效地清除和重组。屋顶被广泛拆除,墙壁被抹上灰泥,地板被撕裂。变化的规模表明,它们是单个一致计划的计划的一部分。房屋内部水显示功能的创建是新设计的核心。管道供水完全用于展示:仍由地下蓄水池提供家庭用水。’
该区块中的其他物业均未收到管道渡槽水。不平等加剧的另一个标志。没有试图储存这种昂贵的商品。溢流排到街上。消费更加显眼。
内部空间取代了房屋的远景,现在被划分为不同的区域,每个区域都有其水景。中庭用黑色和白色马赛克重新铺上地板,中央雨水盆(摆放)用大理石重新铺面并配有喷泉,并将北侧的一组房间撞成一个并用白色马赛克铺地板。中庭旁的小围裙经过重新设计,配有精心制作的喷泉,喷泉从南墙喷出,注满了一个大型开放式游泳池,水从北唇上流下,汇入一条通向街道的排水沟。在小型和大型围墙之间建造了一个扩大的服务区,包括厨房,卫生间,储藏室和工作室,以及较高的楼层,遮挡了它们之间的视线,但给人一种感觉,房子内有单独的区域,还有更多私人身份,这样访问者的身份就可以通过他的访问程度以及可以看到的内容和对象来象征性地表示。
Turning left and passing the service area, you approached the most lavishly appointed and intimate part of the house. It was centred around the atrium of the small courtyard house incorporated into 维斯塔斯之家 in the second century BC. There was a private rear entrance on Vicolo di Narciso (presumably for the use only of family and select others). SALVE (‘welcome’)在街道入口处宣布门槛镶嵌。中庭铺在白色马赛克地板上,在房间边缘周围铺有红色带,并带有卷叶和卷须设计。喷泉周围的马赛克图案反映了这种设计,但这里也有相互交错的十字形装饰和描绘祭坛,水果和鲜花的小面板。中央游泳池衬有大理石,并设有喷泉。
在中庭的东北侧建有浴室套间。有一个入口,一个温暖和温暖的房间,一个热跳水池,一个洗手间,以及在大型长廊中间的一个露天游泳池。在peristyle周围有一个封闭的大大厅和一些装饰豪华的客房,可欣赏花园景色,其中一间在墙壁和地板上饰有令人惊叹的蓝色墙壁涂料和大理石饰面板,另一间在地板上饰有装饰玻璃圆盘。
‘房屋在此阶段的整体效果,’ says Rick Jones, ‘是一个精心策划的豪华展示方案。总共至少有四个喷泉。装修的费用肯定很高,这本来是可以证明的。进入房屋内部的游客很容易看到,但是即使是外面的人也能看到喷泉喷出的水顺着街道流下。’
地震后
维斯塔斯之家这样持续了半个世纪。然后,公元62年2月5日,地震袭击并摧毁了这座城市。尽管市政供水很快得到恢复,但至少在这个附近的私人住宅的供水仍然暂停。‘This had severe implications for the owners of 维斯塔斯之家, who had based the decoration of their property on the lavish provision of fountains. Consequently, another period of reconstruction and redecoration was undertaken in the house. The owners were clearly concerned with maintaining their house as an active status symbol in the post-earthquake years. It demonstrates that the fierce social competition which characterised the Pompeian elite in the first century AD continued to the very end.’
如果说水以财富为标志,那么没有水的水以衰败为标志。整个房屋必须根据收集的雨水提供的有限供应量进行改造。预计这种变化将是永久性的,因为到处都去除了铅管,即使是在马赛克下运行的铅管也是如此。浴室套房放弃了。游泳池变成了戏水池。大多数喷泉被水池中的水代替。但是,人们花了很大的力气才能创造出一个大型的喷泉式功能喷泉。这是如此重要,以至于房屋的整个北端都经过重新设计以提供房屋。接待室变成了一个大的地上蓄水池,并用内墙加固并加固了拐角。建造了一个新的上层,屋顶围绕着peristyle的一部分抬高,以增加雨水的流量。在这里和其他地方,墙壁以庞贝第四种风格重新粉刷。但是装饰者从未完成他们的工作。在此之前,公元79年8月24日的爆发摧毁了维斯塔斯之屋。
‘The house,’挖掘机得出结论,‘was almost always in a state of development. Innovations in architecture and decoration were embraced and routinely incorporated into this elite property. The changes reflected the way in which 维斯塔斯之家 was used as a vehicle for the display of luxury, to emphasise the status of its occupants, to associate them with the highest strata of society, and to underline the distance between them and the majority of the Pompeian population. The House of the Vestals played an active role in the social and political life of the city. Therefore, new fashions had to be kept up to keep the house in peak working condition.’

Water is partly a utilitarian matter. You need water for drinking, cooking, washing and bathing. In ancient Pompeii, most people collected water for domestic use from underground cisterns where rainwater was collected, from public wells (under the Republic), or from public fountains fed by the city aqueduct (under the Caesars). Those living in the grand houses also had household cisterns, usually under the floor of the atrium. Water drained off the roof through a central opening (compluvium) into a basin in the floor (impluvium), from which it was channelled into the cistern beneath; often there was a small covered hole in the floor of the atrium through which water could be retrieved by lowering a bucket. These were the only sources of water to 维斯塔斯之家 before the early first century AD. They continued, moreover, to provide water for essential household use until the end.
高压水从城市渡槽引到房屋的铅管中是另一回事。它为新的装饰性实验打开了机会,喷泉和水池遍布了城市中每一个精英住宅。
渡槽通过维苏威河门附近的北幕墙进入城市,那里有一个castellum aquae(水塔),接收水,将其过滤,然后将其引入三个管道进行分配。城堡水在城市中处于最高点。水流入校准的加压导管中。小型的二级水塔减轻了城市南北主要斜坡上形成的压力。渡槽的水,以及提供公共浴室和喷泉的水,被输送到八分之一的私人住宅中。从罗马水务工程师Frontinus和罗马建筑师Vitruvius的作品中,我们了解到私人供水是一种特权。你不得不拉弦,你不得不付出。平民被选举为负责公共服务的官员,他们从特定动脉中抽出一定量的水,这些水通过校准过的管道从大动脉中排出,仅送给主要公民。警惕虐待:‘关于向私人住宅供水的权利,他(小伙子)必须仔细观察,没有人得到皇帝的书面授权,即没有人取走未经官方授权的水,而且没有人能比他被授权做的事更多’ (Frontinus).
维斯塔之屋在公元20年代进行了实质性的重建,以允许在建筑群中铺设管道,并至少安装四个喷泉。在随后的装修中,除服务区外,几乎所有房间都铺设了马赛克地板,而所有主要的接待室都装饰有Third Style壁画。结果是全新的空间和装饰体验。
该物业以前的轴向结构已被废弃,它的线性路径位于房屋前部围绕中庭小中型建筑群的接待室与后部中庭大中型建筑群之间。取而代之的是,通过该物业创建了一条更circuit回的路线,从前到后的旅程变成了在开放区域之间运动的戏剧,该开放区域包含喷泉,自然光和黑暗狭窄的走廊。水在开放区域中起着主要作用,为装饰性合奏创建了焦点,向参观者强调了财产所有者的财富和地位。另外,大多数喷泉的布置都使它们可以从入口处看到,而溢流则明显地流到了街上。宏伟的一瞥给路人留下深刻的印象。尊贵的客人可以欣赏到马赛克,壁画,圆柱和喷泉的完整全景。
同时,奴隶们继续在桶里收集水以做家务。

自来水的政治
Water is partly a utilitarian matter. You need water for drinking, cooking, washing and bathing. In ancient Pompeii, most people collected water for domestic use from underground cisterns where rainwater was collected, from public wells (under the Republic), or from public fountains fed by the city aqueduct (under the Caesars). Those living in the grand houses also had household cisterns, usually under the floor of the atrium. Water drained off the roof through a central opening (compluvium) into a basin in the floor (impluvium), from which it was channelled into the cistern beneath; often there was a small covered hole in the floor of the atrium through which water could be retrieved by lowering a bucket. These were the only sources of water to 维斯塔斯之家 before the early first century AD. They continued, moreover, to provide water for essential household use until the end.
高压水从城市渡槽引到房屋的铅管中是另一回事。它为新的装饰性实验打开了机会,喷泉和水池遍布了城市中每一个精英住宅。
渡槽通过维苏威河门附近的北幕墙进入城市,那里有一个castellum aquae(水塔),接收水,将其过滤,然后将其引入三个管道进行分配。城堡水在城市中处于最高点。水流入校准的加压导管中。小型的二级水塔减轻了城市南北主要斜坡上形成的压力。渡槽的水,以及提供公共浴室和喷泉的水,被输送到八分之一的私人住宅中。从罗马水务工程师Frontinus和罗马建筑师Vitruvius的作品中,我们了解到私人供水是一种特权。你不得不拉弦,你不得不付出。平民被选举为负责公共服务的官员,他们从特定动脉中抽出一定量的水,这些水通过校准过的管道从大动脉中排出,仅送给主要公民。警惕虐待:‘关于向私人住宅供水的权利,他(小伙子)必须仔细观察,没有人得到皇帝的书面授权,即没有人取走未经官方授权的水,而且没有人能比他被授权做的事更多’ (Frontinus).
维斯塔之屋在公元20年代进行了实质性的重建,以允许在建筑群中铺设管道,并至少安装四个喷泉。在随后的装修中,除服务区外,几乎所有房间都铺设了马赛克地板,而所有主要的接待室都装饰有Third Style壁画。结果是全新的空间和装饰体验。
该物业以前的轴向结构已被废弃,它的线性路径位于房屋前部围绕中庭小中型建筑群的接待室与后部中庭大中型建筑群之间。取而代之的是,通过该物业创建了一条更circuit回的路线,从前到后的旅程变成了在开放区域之间运动的戏剧,该开放区域包含喷泉,自然光和黑暗狭窄的走廊。水在开放区域中起着主要作用,为装饰性合奏创建了焦点,向参观者强调了财产所有者的财富和地位。另外,大多数喷泉的布置都使它们可以从入口处看到,而溢流则明显地流到了街上。宏伟的一瞥给路人留下深刻的印象。尊贵的客人可以欣赏到马赛克,壁画,圆柱和喷泉的完整全景。
同时,奴隶们继续在桶里收集水以做家务。

Stop Press:布拉德福德的新发现
里克·琼斯(Rick Jones)为我们带来了最新的简短报告,介绍了他在庞贝城的最新作品–与本期其他报道中的Reading小组得出的关于街道电网约会的结论截然不同。

在公元79年被毁的庞贝城是一个古老的地方。意大利考古学家的发掘表明,定义这座城市的防御工事可以追溯到五,六世纪,与已知的第一座寺庙的时期相同。什么’目前尚不清楚哪个建筑在这个早期就屹立不倒,因为它们可能是用土和木头的临时性材料制成的,并且受到后来建筑的干扰。
在仍然保留在城市中的房屋中,外科医生的房屋经常被认为是最古老的房屋之一,其历史可追溯到公元前四世纪。它具有独特的大型石灰石砌块风格,被称为作品集。具有讽刺意味的是,这是AD 79表面以下的第一个挖掘地点–由Amedeo Maiuri在1926年创作。’符合现代地层标准,但马乌里’这座房子的建于公元前四世纪。外科医生之家位于庞贝古城的英美项目正在研究的街区中,我们从2002年开始发掘,包括对马尤里的重新发掘’s trenches. It’再次回顾别人几十年前暴露的东西,总是很奇怪的经历!
我们的工作改变了房子的故事。现在可以确定,外科医生之家不是在c。之前建造的。西元前200年。我们发现了一枚硬币,其年代不早于公元前三世纪末,位于四合院房屋的建筑沟槽所切割的层中。它的原始计划也与装饰整个二十世纪罗马建筑教科书的计划有很大不同。
更引人注目的是我们在2003年发现的较早的房屋,该房屋被拆除以为直立房屋的建造腾出空间。临时建于公元前三世纪,它与后来的房屋完全不同。这意味着这不仅是在同一地块上重建房屋,而且是财产部门的重组。
我们的发现与城市布局上的其他新作品相吻合。对该城市的规划一看,就会发现有几组街区显然是按计划规划的。由Herman Geertman领导的荷兰团队在研究中已经意识到了这一点。该团队的其中一员Astrid Schoonhoven对城市的北部Regio VI进行了详细研究。她的结论是,整个街区计划是一个连贯计划的一部分。然而,她的观察是基于对计划区块的测量,并且可以’为这座城市的重组提供约会。
现在,我们在外科医生之家的发现给出了一个日期,这似乎与意大利考古学家Filippo Coarelli和Fabrizio Pesando进行的发掘结果一致。一个新的认识正在浮现,我们现在在庞贝城看到的这座城市是批发重新规划过程的结果,该过程抹掉了以前的房产。它可能发生在公元前三世纪,即使填充到计划中的空间的新建筑可能要到第二世纪才完工。
众所周知,公元79年是一个充满活力的城市,整个公元一世纪都在不断变化。我们现在也知道,这些变化是在三个世纪前由城市规划的巨大努力创建的城市框架内发生的。


本文摘自《世界时间史学》第4期发表的全文。 点击这里订阅

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