马丘比丘 discovered

西班牙的消息来源记录了最后一个印加人避难所Vilcabamba的存在,后来其位置被遗忘了。美国学者,探险家,寻宝者和(后来的)政治家希拉姆·宾厄姆(Hiram Bingham,1875-1956年)出发寻找这一点‘印加失落之城’。他的考察团队包括地质师/地理学家,博物学家,外科医生,地形学家和工程师。这反映了挑战:深入未映射的安第斯山脉中部山区森林。

宾厄姆(Bingham)由当地向导带领前往一个只能沿着多岩石的小径通行的地点,两边都有陡峭的水滴。在两座山峰之间的马鞍山上,乌鲁班巴河(Rubamba River)的峡谷位于下方600m,在密密的灌木丛中,梯田,楼梯和印加遗址的建筑物由巨大的砖石砌成,显示了他的身影。

马丘比丘 uncovered

宾厄姆在现场和其他70公里长的地方进行了一系列的清理工作‘Inca Trail’ between the ancient capital at Cuzco and 马丘比丘. The Inca engineers had terraced the saddle, levelling the rough stone of the plateau to create a series of small plazas and building platforms for their temples and associated buildings. The steep flanking slopes were also terraced, in this case for cultivation and the small houses and other structures of the inhabitants. There were also cave-cemeteries on the slopes, many with human remains and grave-goods in situ.

总的来说,该地点上的200座左右的建筑物将可容纳约1000人。但是他们是谁?谁选择住在这样一个偏僻且人迹罕至的地方?

马丘比丘 mythologised

宾厄姆坚信自己找到了寓言‘lost city’Vilcabamba镇,最后一个叛逆者印加皇帝Manco的最后避难所。‘在设计和执行方面从未发现像它们一样的东西,’ he said of the most impressive ruins. But Bingham found no Conquest-period artefacts, and no evidence of the burning and destruction which the Spanish sources record as the fate of Vilcabamba. The 失落的城市 has now been more confidently identified as the site at Espiritu Pampa in the Amazon jungle.

马丘比丘 explained

马丘比丘’s significance is more prosaic: it symbolises the extent, technical skill, and productivity of the Inca Empire in its heyday. Its High Andes location represents the former border of the Empire in the mid-late 15th century, when it extended 3,500km north-south and around 300km inland from the coast. This vast domain was tied together by an estimated 40,000km of road. 马丘比丘 is an example of this: almost inaccessible in Bingham’s day, still hard to reach today, it was clearly an integral part of the 15th-century Inca Empire. The culture of 马丘比丘 proves this. The intensive cultivation represented by the tiers of little terraces clinging to the slopes, the monumental scale of the engineering and architecture, and the sophistication of the stonework all bear testimony to 马丘比丘 having been part of a great civilization.


本文摘自《世界时间史学》第45期发表的全文。 点击这里订阅

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